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Investment casting is also called lost wax casting. Its products are precise, complex, and close to the final shape of the part. It can be used directly without processing or with little processing. Therefore, investment casting is an advanced process with near-net shape.

Ancient my country: Prince Wuding, Bronze Ban, Bronze Lion, etc. are all masterpieces of investment casting. Since investment casting was used in industrial production in the 1940s, it has been developing at a rapid rate for half a century. In particular, European and American countries are developing rapidly. Investment casting is used in almost all industrial sectors, especially in electronics, petroleum, chemical, energy, transportation, light industry, textiles, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, pumps and valves. In recent years, my country has developed rapidly.

The development of investment technology has enabled investment casting to produce not only small castings, but also larger castings. The outline size of the largest investment casting is nearly 2m, while the minimum wall thickness is less than 2mm. At the same time, investment castings It is also more precise. In addition to linear tolerances, parts can also achieve higher geometric tolerances. The surface roughness of investment castings is also getting smaller and smaller, which can reach Ra0.4μm.


Ceramic casting

A casting method for producing castings with a ceramic slurry made of a casting mold. Ceramic slurry is mixed with ethyl silicate hydrolyzate and fine refractory sand with relatively pure texture and high thermal stability, such as fused quartz, zircon, corundum, etc. In order to make the ceramic slurry gel in a short time, calcium hydroxide or magnesium oxide is often added as a catalyst. Because the composition of the refractory used and its appearance are similar to those of ceramics, it is called ceramic type. Ceramic mold casting is a new process developed on the basis of ordinary sand casting. There are two types of ceramic type: ①The ceramic type is all poured from ceramic slurry. The production process is to first fix the pattern on the mold plate, coat the sand box, and then pour the adjusted ceramic slurry into the sand box. ②Using a bushing, pouring ceramic slurry in the gap between the bushing and the pattern to make a mold. The bushing can be sand type or metal type. Pouring the ceramic shell with a bushing can save a lot of ceramic slurry and is widely used in production. The surface roughness of ceramic mold castings can reach Ra10-1.25 microns, and the dimensional accuracy is as high as 3-5 grades, which can achieve the purpose of less machining. Ceramic mold casting has a short production cycle and high metal utilization rate. The largest casting can reach more than ten tons, which is mainly used for casting large-scale thick-walled precision castings and casting single-piece and small-batch punching dies, forging dies, plastic dies, metal dies, die-casting dies, glass dies and other molds. The service life of ceramic casting molds is comparable to that of molds made by machining methods, and the manufacturing cost is lower than that of molds made by machining methods.

Sand casting

Among the total casting production, 60-70% of the castings are produced with sand molds, and about 70% of them are produced with clay sand molds. The main reason is that compared with other casting methods, sand casting has low cost, simple production process and short production cycle. Therefore, castings such as engine cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, crankshafts, etc. of automobiles are produced by the clay green sand process. When the wet type cannot meet the requirements, consider using the clay sand surface dry sand type, dry sand type or other sand type. The weight of castings produced by clay wet sand casting can range from a few kilograms to tens of kilograms, while the castings produced by clay dry casting can weigh tens of tons.

Generally speaking, for medium and large castings, cast irons can be produced with resin no-bake sand molds, and steel castings can be produced with water glass sand molds. Castings with precise dimensions and smooth surfaces can be obtained, but the cost is high.

Of course, the casting accuracy, surface finish, material density, metallographic structure, mechanical properties, etc. produced by sand casting are often poor, so when these performance requirements of the casting are higher, other casting methods should be used, such as melting Die (lost wax) casting, die casting, low pressure casting, etc.

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